Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Climate change and hydraulic impacts on water networks supply Literature review

Climate change and hydraulic impacts on water networks supply - Literature review Example 13 3. Conclusion 14 References 15 1. Introduction One of the most important characteristics of last decade is the increase of extreme climate phenomena worldwide. These phenomena have been related to significant climate change, compared to the past. The research that has been developed in this field has led to the assumption that climate change has been resulted mostly due to the following three reasons: ‘a) the changes in solar’s radiation, b) the changes in the structure of atmosphere and c) the changes in the earth’s surface’ (Ahrens 2007, p.438). Certain events, such as ‘the tectonic activity’ (Rafferty 2011, p.179) have been also related to the current expansion of climate change. In addition, it has been proved that the lack of control in regard to climate change can lead to non-reversible problems, such as global warming (Maslin 2007, p.17). One of the most important aspects of climate change seems to be its potential impact on water net works supply. The specific issue is explored below using appropriate literature. The findings of empirical research and data published by governmental and non-governmental organizations have been also employed for offering an in-depth analysis in regard to this study’s subject. 2. ... There are several factors that are related to climate change. In a study developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2007) it is made clear that the relationship between climate and specific events has not fully explored. For this reason, when trying to evaluate climate change it is necessary to refer to appropriate parameters (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2007, p.718). In any case, evaluating climate changes can be a challenging task since climate conditions are not standardized (Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change 2007, p.718). In terms of their context, the parameters of climate change can be highly differentiated. In fact, it seems that each time that climate changes need to be assessed the parameters used need to vary according to the characteristics of the region, as of its geography, and the information available (Van Dam 2003, p.111). Of course, there are certain parameters that are necessarily used when evaluating climate changes worldwide. The level of CO2 emissions or the annual average volume of waste can be considered as indicative parameters of such type (Van Dam 2003, p.111). It should be noted that climate change is usually evaluated using appropriate models. The parameters on which these models are based can be different according to the structure of each model as related to its aims. For example, there are models that require the use of ‘current climate conditions for predicting future climate conditions’ (Mirza and Ahmad 2005, p.32). Other models can employ different parameters, including the characteristics of a region’s soil, such as ‘soil structure or soil moisture’ (Mirza and Ahmad 2005, p.32). Solar radiation, in regard to a particular

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